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Today at Mumbai Grill, I overheard the real reason for the name change: apparently there's another local restaurant with "Bombay" in the name that threatened to sue or something. The owner has a prior claim to it through family connexions (apparently the original restaurant is in Champaign) but proving that would be enough of a hassle that he decided just to give in.

My source is an energetic young desi I don't recall seeing there before. I also overheard a customer questioning him in Hindi regarding his origins and discovered that he was Panjabi. Just to confirm, I said, "ਕੀ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਹੋ?" (Stupidly omitting the pronoun, thus making it somewhat ambiguous whether I was speaking Panjabi with a respectful verb but Hindi with a familiar one. I think he parsed it as Panjabi, since he in turn asked me if I spoke it and I had to confess I knew only a few words.)

Ever since I started going there, I've been trying to suss out the background of the staff, but without much success because my spoken comprehension just sucks. I even thought they might be Gujjus. (Frankly, the way to bet given their dominance of the local retail market.) Well, that goes a ways to explaining the lack of any Bombay specialties there. At first I thought the cuisine was generic North Indian to cater to Gora expectations, but it could be that that's just what they know how to cook.
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We have a new addition to our spice cabinet: ajwain. When I saw it on the menu Thursday night, I naturally assumed it was a synonym for some other spice I'd already heard about. Well, it isn't, and our first taste was intriguing enough to prompt me to buy a bag at Patel on Friday. [livejournal.com profile] monshu and I spent the rest of the weekend experimenting with it.

Saturday night he roasted a chicken with a rub of garlic, cumin, ajwain, and lemon juice. The cooking smell was just amazing. The ajwain adds a note of thyme that goes well with poultry. I made some pita chips that night with the seven-grain pita from Middle Eastern Bakery and--remembering our ajwain ka paraatha at Klay Oven--sprinkled them liberally with ajwain seeds. Despite the coating of oil, most failed to cling, but those which fell off roasted to a beautiful dark brown.

[livejournal.com profile] monshu put these to good use the next night when he incorporated them into a mustard-based marinade for tuna steaks. In fact, I thought the effect was even better than with the chicken. Clearly more messing about is called for!

A note on nomenclature: As I always am when learning a new Hindi word, I was curious what the Panjabi equivalent would be. Searches on what I supposed to be the Gurmukhi spelling weren't turning up anything, so I thought if I tried the equivalent to ka paraatha I might find it in the name of the prepared bread. But "ਦਾ ਪਰਾਂਠਾ" returned only carbon-copies of the Wikipedia entry for "paratha", which set me on a merry chase for the correct Panjabi spelling.

It took me a good while with the dictionary I have at home, but I finally found it: ਪਰੌਂਠਾ. That is, it has the (nasalised) vowel transcribed au and pronounced [ɔ]. The Panjabi for ajwain, as it turns out, has the front equivalent; that is, ਜਵੈਣ is transcribed jawaiṇ and pronounced [ˈd͡ʒʌʋɛɲ]. This prompted me to check a few other terms and, sure enough, Panjabis call "raita" [ˈɾɛta] although "mustard" is still [ˈɾai] (although colloquially also [ˈɾəi] or [ˈɾɛ]). Hmm...I feel a post of Indian culinary terms and their Panjabi equivalents coming on.
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खिड़की / کهڙکي / ਖਿੜਕੀ khiRkee "window" (Skt. खडक्किका khaḍakkikā; cf. खण्ड kaṇḍa "piece, section")
Not much to say about this one, so in the interests of padding out the entry, I'll note the English loan विंडो viNDo used particularly in computer contexts, e.g. प्रलेख विंडो pralekh viNDo "document window". And, of course, in the name of the world's most ubiquitous software, विंडोज़ / ونڈوز / ਵਿਂਡੋਜ਼.
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इतिहास / اتہاس / ਇਤਿਹਾਸ itihaas "history"
تاريخ / ਤਾਰੀਖ taareekh "history"
I'm not sure if anyone else has been following Language Log's continuing coverage of attempts to discern the identity of those responsible for the recent terrorist attacks in Bombay, but I'm finding them quite interesting. Naturally, they're focussing on linguistic evidence. Both those favouring a Pakistani origin for the terrorists and those arguing for a domestic origin are finding support for their theories; the only point of agreement seems to be that the chances that the "Deccan Mujahideen" is actually from the Deccan are small. In fact, if the recorded conversation broadcast on Indian news proves to be genuine, then the trail leads directly back to Panjab.

Ah, but the Indian states of Panjab or the Pakistani one? The jury's still out on that. Those arguing for an Indian origin focus chiefly on vocabulary; one commentator quoted in the Language Log article singles out the words प्रशासन prashaasan "administration" (Sanskritic), सरकार sarkaar "government" (Persian), and इतिहास itihaas (also Sanskritic). I'm not sure what the proper Urdu equivalents are for the first two, but is seems clear enough that Arabic تاريخ is preferred in the last case.

(Not universally, however; there seems to be clear indication in the form of 800+ Ghits that the absence of اتہاس in Pakistan has been overstated. Incidentally, here's where I confess that I've been guilty of a certain distortion when it comes to my discussions of "Panjabi" in these posts, since my point of reference is Indian Panjabi. There are several reasons for this bias: One is that I read Gurmukhi far better than Perso-Arabic script, which automatically makes me dependent primarily on Indian sources. Another is that Panjabi is hardly a written language in Pakistan anyway, where the prestige variety is Urdu, Moreover, as I mentioned in the last entry, Panjabi written in Perso-Arabic script is difficult to distinguish from Urdu in any case.)

Although some derivational elements are rather indiscriminate in their ability to combine with stems of varies origins, most collocate with terms of similar origin. Urdu/Pakistani Panjabi تاريخ دان marries the aforementioned Arabic element with Persian دان daan, a previously-discussed element meaning "receptacle". Indian Panjabi ਇਤਿਹਾਸਕਾਰ itihaaskaar, on the other hand, incorporates a different Persian stem کار kaar meaning "doing" and--by metonymy--a doer. इतिहासकार itihaaskaar also exists in Hindi (whereas the presence of اتہاس notwithstanding, اتہاسكار garners no hits at all) where it coexists with इतिहास लेखक itihaas-lekhak, a mere "history writer" (Panjabi ਇਤਿਹਾਸ ਲੇਖਕ).
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पुस्तकालय pustakaalay, ਪੁਸਤਕਾਲਾ pustakaalaa, کتاب گھر / ਕਿਤਾਬ ਘਰ kitaab-ghar, دارالکتب daarulkutub "library"
So far, there's been great unanimity in the vocabulary I've been presenting, but that isn't by design. It's a by-product of the fact that I've been sticking mostly to basic vocabulary, which tends to show little difference between Hindi and Urdu (and Panjabi, in most instances). But you don't have to stray very far into the realm of "higher vocabulary" before you start hitting divergences.

The word किताब / کتاب / ਕਿਤਾਬ kitaab for "book" (from Arabic via Persian) will be understood anywhere, but that doesn't mean it's always the preferred usage. Shapiro's Primer, which explicitly teaches the sort of "shuddh-Hindi" found in the Indian educational system, ignores it completely in favour of पुस्तक pustak (a direct borrowing of Sanskrit पुस्तकं). (Always a bit more practical, McGregor alternates between the terms, but with noticeable bias towards पुस्तक.)

ਪੁਸਤਕ pustak is also the first translation listed in the Mahan Kosh Panajbi lexicon and enters into more compounds and collocations in the Singh Brothers dictionary than ਕਿਤਾਬ. But the latter is the only term used by Shackleton in his basic Panjabi grammar; it also beats out its Sanskritic rival 44,700 Ghits to 8,820. Perhaps needless to say, but Teach Yourself Urdu recognises only كتابيں kitaabeM and not *پستكيں pustakeM.

Since all the common terms for "library" basically equate to "book house", it's not surprising to find divergent NIA equivalents. The second element in the Hindi word listed above is Sanskritic आलय aalay "abode" (as in हिमालय Himaalay "abode of snow"), which has the Panjabi form ਆਲਾ aalaa. Panjabi ਪੁਸਤਕਾਲਾ gets about ten times the hits of ਕਿਤਾਬ ਘਰ kitaab-ghar which is literally a "book house", but I suspect that's because only Indian Panjabis commonly use Gurmukhi. Pakistani Panjabis rarely write their language and, when they do, many words are indistinguishable from their Urdu cognates. (کتاب گھر kitaab-ghar is, naturally, good Urdu as well.)

It's impossible to determine easily the relative frequency of کتاب گھر and دارالکتب in Urdu because the latter is lifted wholesale from Arabic. Literally, it is a "dwelling place (daar) of books (kutub)". If you're wondering about the different spelling here, it's because this word incorporates an Arabic "broken plural", a usage typical of higher registers of Urdu, Persian, and other Arabic-influenced languages.

And if this terminological richness weren't enough, there is also the recent English loan लाइब्रेरी / لايبريري / ਲਾਇਬਰੇਰੀ laaeebreree. I'm not sure exactly what niche it fills in the respective languages' ecologies, but certainly the related borrowing लाइब्रेरियन / ਲਾਇਬਰੇਰੀਅਨ laaeebrerian seems to be giving native coinages like पुस्तकाघ्यक्ष pustakaadhyaksh ("book supervisor") and ਪੁਸਤਕ ਪਾਲ pustak-paaL ("book protector") a run for their money. (I have to confess, I was kind of hoping for "library-wallah" myself.)
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सिलसिला \ سلسله \ ਸਿਲਸਿਲਾ silsila "chain; connexion; series; descent"
चेतावनी \ ਚੇਤਾਵਨੀ chetaavanee "warning, notice, alarm"
ज़िंदगी \ زندگي \ ਜ਼ਿੰਦਗੀ zindagee "living, lifetime"

I'm awfully tired, so today's post will be expanded tomorrow. In the meantime, can anyone tell me what the three words I've picked have in common?

ETA: Only one taker? These are three words that, according to an article which appeared in The Hindu were misspelled in the manifesto of the hitherto unknown "Mujahideen Hyderabad Deccan", which has claimed responsibility for the deadly attacks in Mumbai, and are held up as evidence that the document was originally composed in Urdu rather than Hindi.

I'm not going to speak to the plausibility to that, I'm just going to observe what a lovely triad we have here. Silsila was familiar to me because it shows up so often on Arabic-language publications. The basic meaning is "chain", but in a publishing context it means "series". Zindagee is also familiar, being a straightforward Persian nominalisation of the word زنده "alive".

The only term that was new to me is चेतावनी chetaavanee, which you'll notice has no equivalent in Urdu. That's because it's a recent coinage (from the Sanskrit participle cetavya "making known") probably intended to oust long-standing borrowings like عبرت and فہمايش. Only one of my Panjabi dictionaries has it, indicating it is a recent arrival there as well (though one fully accepted in Indian Panjabi to judge by the Ghits).
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बोटी / بوٿي / ਬੋਟੀ boTee (cf. Sanskrit वटक vaṭaka "small lump") "small piece of flesh"
The inspiration for today's word came from yesterday's lunch. So why didn't I post it yesterday? Because I had a more ambitious post planned that would discuss the systematic use of feminine gender to derive diminutives in NIA. Maybe next time. For now, all you need to know is that बोटी has a big brother बोटा boTaa which does not seem to be in common use nowadays, but which is more likely to be a direct descendant of वटक.

Another common morphological process in NIA is reduplication, as seen in the Panjabi expression ਬੋਟੀ ਬੋਟੀ ਕਰਣਾ boTee boTee karNaa "cut to pieces". Hindi equivalents include बोटियाँ काटना (काटना kaaTnaa "cut"), बोटियाँ उड़ाना (उड़ाना uRhaanaa "blow"), and टिक्का-बोटी करना tikkaa boTee karnaa where टिक्का is a near-synonym borrowed from Persian (تكه). (By the way, टिक्का tikkaa / تكه tikka provides a rare instance of a true morphological divergence between Hindi and Urdu. In Hindi, the common Persian suffix -ah is treated as -aa, whereas in Urdu, it is pronounced short.) Another less grisly verbal expression is बोटी चढ़ना boTee charRhnaa "become fat or plump".
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गांड़ / گانڙ gaaMR "arse, buttocks" (< Sanskrit गण्डः gaNDah "cheek"; cf. Panjabi ਗੰਡ gaND "idem.")
This is a vulgarity used liberally in the modern Mumbai crime novel I'm reading, so I was more than a little surprised to find not only it in Platts but also a variety of idioms incorporating it. For instance, the worrying गांड़ फटना gaaMR phaaRnaa (lit. "arse tearing") "get into a funk, ge frightened, come under pressure" and the puzzling गांड़-गलत gaaMR galat (lit. "arse-error") "senseless, stupefied". Of course, more literal expressions were there as well, e.g. गांड़मराओ gaaMR-maraao (lit. "arse-strikee") "catamite". (As I told [livejournal.com profile] monshu, best not to think too deeply about what Victorian Englishmen would need such vocabulary for.)

More recent idioms incorporating the word include गांड़ मत्ती gaaMR mastee (lit. "arse intoxication") which seems to mean something along the lines of "screwing around" and गांड़ चौड़ी करके घूमना gasaMR chauRee karke ghoomnaa (a vulgar twist on लम्बी चौड़ी हांकना lambee chauRee haMkaa "boast"). But by far the most common derivative in modern use seems to be गांडू gaaNDoo [note the lack of lenition] which originally meant "sodomite" and is now a general term of a abuse, particularly for a weak or timorous man.

Strangely, the word गांड़ isn't in Shabdkosh, but a term of similar meaning is गुदा / گدا / ਗੁਦਾ gudaa "anus" which appears in such phrases as गुदा द्वार / ਗੁਦਾ-ਦੁਆਰ gudaa dwaar "arsehole" (द्वार dwaar "door, entryway") and गुदा मैथुन gudaa maithun "anal sex".
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प्याज़ / پياز / ਪਿਆਜ਼ pyaaz "onion"
A quick one today, inspired by [livejournal.com profile] wwidsith. Not much to say about this term, since it's a straightforward loan from Persian. It does however spawn the nisbah adjective प्याज़ी / پيازي / प्याज़ी pyaazee which in addition to meaning "oniony" has the extended meaning "of reddish colour". (For Hindi, Platts gives "crimson" whereas my Panjabi sources agree on "pinkish". Anyone have an opinion on how to describe the hue of Indian onions?)

Another term (which may well be more common in Panjabi) is गण्डा gaNDaa / ਗੰਢਾ gaMDhaa, which looks tadbhava, but I'm unsure of the exact origin. The Panjabi diminutive ਗੰਢੀ gaMDhee has among its meanings "clove [of garlic]" (i.e. ਥੋਮ ਦੀ ਗੰਢੀ). Garlic also has an assortment of names in NIA--so many in fact, they're probably best explored in another post.
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For today's word, I'd like to have a closer look at the second element in the compound धूपदानी/ਧੂਪਦਾਨੀ dhoopdaanee posted earlier. Not that the first isn't interesting in its own right (although here it means "incense", its most common modern sense is actually "sunshine"), but the second has undergone a curious shift as well. It seems to be a diminutive of दान/ਦਾਨ, a concrete noun from the Old Aryan root दा dā- "give". So is the development something like "gift" > "alms" > "poorbox" > "small receptacle"? Or "gift" > "gift box" > "box"? Impossible to say with the tools at my disposal. Incidentally, the earlier meaning of धूपदानी was a box for incense; only later did this come to mean something incense could be burned in.

Other compounds with -दानी/-ਦਾਨੀ:
चायदानी/ਚਾਹਦਾਨੀ chaaydaanee/chaahdaanee "teapot"
राखदानी/ਰਾਖਦਾਨੀ raakhdaanee "ashtray" (राख/ਰਾਖ raakh "ashes")
कामदानी kaamdaanee "diaper; nappy" (lit. "work receptacle"![*])
चूहेदानी/ਚੂਹੇਦਾਨੀ choohedaanee "mousetrap" (चूहे/ਚੂਹੇ choohe "mice")

[*] Platts glosses this as "A kind of embroidery work on net or muslin", so perhaps we have an example of recent metonymic euphemism.
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चाबी / چابي / ਚਾਬੀ chaabee "key"
कुंजी / کنجی / ਕੁੰਜੀ kuMjee "key"
Again, I'm left with intriguing questions about distribution of variants and no obvious place to seek answers. My dictionaries all list both words, but my grammar books list only one each--चाबी / چابي chaabee for Hindi/Urdu and ਕੁੰਜੀ kuMjee for Panjabi--so I can only assume from this that these are the more common variants in each language.

When I learned चाबी, my first reaction was That looks suspiciously like Portuguese, so I was quite chuffed to see that Platts agrees with me in deriving it from chave. That derivation would also explain the earlier Hindustani variant चाभी chaabhee, as I can't think of any other word that shows this sort of variation in medials.

Since, as mentioned before, Panjabi preserved the inherited contrast between /v/ and /b/, this would indicate that ਚਾਬੀ must be a borrowing from Hindustani. Still, that doesn't stop it from entering into a number of idioms. ਚਾਬੀ ਘੁਮਾਉਣਾ caabee ghumaauuNaa "turn[*] the key" means "tutor" and ਚਾਬੀ ਦੇਣਾ "give key" is to wind a watch or clock. (In Hindi, the latter is चाबी भरना chaabee bharnaa "fill key".)

Panjabi ਕੁੰਜੀ has the extended sense of "note, annotation" whereas its Hindi counterpart कुंजी is mapped to English "key" in its computer terminological uses, e.g. कुंजीपटल kuMjeepaTal "keyboard"[**] (with पटल "covering" apparently used as a kind of collective suffix) or आंकड़ा गूढ़लेखन कुंजी aaMkRaa guRhalekhan kuMjee "data encryption key". Again, if Platts is to be believed, the ultimate etymological root is the surprising कुञ्च kuñja "elephant tusk". I suppose we have a working hypothesis on what early Indian keys are made from!

[*] Causative of ਘੁੰਮਣਾ ghuMNaa "rotate".
[**] Beside borrwed कीबोर्ड keeborD, of course.
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बीड़ी / بيڙي / ਬੀੜੀ beeRee "cheap cigarette"
This is a word I've wondered about for some time. If you read much Indian fiction or watch enough Indian movies--particularly crime stories--sooner or later you'll hit references to smoking "bidis". For a long time, I thought this was simply a name for cigarettes you rolled yourself. Then, when I noticed characters carrying packs of bidis, I thought they were small cigarillos. The second impression was nearer the mark, although the leaf which serves as a rolling paper comes from the Coromandel ebony or तेन्दू tendoo (a relative of the persimmon).

This is actually an interesting case of transference. The Sanskrit etymon is विटी viṭī "betel plant" and Platts actually defines बीड़ी as "a flake of pān or betel for eating"; the related word बीड़ा / بيڙا / ਬੀੜਾ beeRaa still retains this meaning. Even though cigarettes are smoked rather than chewed, the experience was apparently similar enough to the long-standing Indian habit of chewing betel that an older word was given new meaning.

For ordinary cigarettes, the loanword सिगरेट / ਸਿਗਰਟ sigret is preferred, e.g. एक सिगरेट देना कामरेड! "A cigarette, comrade!"
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चेला / چيلا / ਚੇਲਾ chelaa "disciple" (Sanskrit चेटकः ćeṭakah "slave, servant")
As a name for followers of a guru, this word has found its way into English-language New Age usage. There's a rhotic variant in Indo-Aryan, चेरा / چيرا / ਚੇਰਾ cheraa which retains the original meaning of "servant".

Another Sanskrit word for "slave" or "servant" is दास dāsa, which survives in the daughter languages nearly unchanged (i.e. दास / داس / ਦਾਸ daas). The original meaning is uncertain, but it seems to have been applied to various hostile peoples in contact with the early Aryans; as these people were subjugated, it acquired the meaning of "slave".

दास has also made it into religious use, acquiring more positive connotations in the process. In some traditions, it may even be used as a title for a sat guru or pure teacher, as this is a "servant" of the true god. Likewise, it has been incorporated into various theophoric names. For instance, the ancient Sanskrit author कालिदास Kālidāsa was literally a "servant of Kali". Mahatma Gandhi's given name, महात्मा Mohandaas, indicates devotion to Krishna; he had brothers named रामदास Raamdaas (also a Marathi saint) and देवदास Devdaas (the protagonist of an eponymous Bengali novel--and now a hit movie starring Shahrukh Khan!). Panjabi singing star ਗੁਰਦਾਸ ਮਾਨ Gurdaas Maan has a given name which memoralises devotion to the Sikh Gurus, two of whom (ਅਮਰ ਦਾਸ Amar Dass and ਰਾਮ ਦਾਸ Raam Daas) had the same element as a surname.
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शादी / شادي / ਸ਼ਾਦੀ shaadee "wedding" and शाबाश / شاباش / ਸ਼ਾਬਾਸ਼ shaabaash "bravo!" are two words that I never expected to be connected. The link, unsurprisingly, is through Persian, where شاد shâd means "joyful". شادي, being the derived abstract noun, originally had the meaning of "joyfulness, mirth"--still the primary sense in modern Persian. In Hindustani, the meaning was extended to "joyful occasion; festivity", particularly a wedding feast. शादी की बधाई shaadee kee badhaa'ee (lit. "increase of joy") is the Hindi equivalent of "Congratulations!" or "Best wishes!" to a new bride or groom.

शाबाश / شاباش / ਸ਼ਾਬਾਸ਼ shaabaash (with assimilation and loss of /d/ immediately before /b/) is actually a compound of شاد with باش bâsh, the imperative stem of بودن bûdan "to be". So, quite literally, "Be happy!"[*] In modern Indo-Aryan, however, it is treated as a noun. In Panjabi, you can ਸ਼ਾਬਾਸ਼ ਦੇ shaabaash de (lit. "give shaabaash", i.e. "praise; applaud") and Hindi has the derived intransitive verb शाबाशना shaabaashnaa.


[*]Other Panjabi equivalents include ਅਸ਼ਕੇ aashke (lit. "tears"), ਵਾਹ ਵਾਹ! vah vah (also used sarcastically), and ਬੱਲੇ ਬੱਲੇ! balle balle--the last of which should be especially familiar to any fans of bhangra music.
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When I saw that the Indians had named their lunar satellite चंद्रयान-1 Chandrayaan-1, I was immediately curious what the name meant. The first element, चंद्र chandra, was immediately familiar as a Sanskritic word for "moon" and I thought यान yaan might be some kind of tatsama derivational ending. Sadly--as the "1" at the end should've tipped me off--it's even more prosaic than that: "Moon-vehicle". The yaan is the yāna of familiar Buddhist terms like Mahāyāna and Vajrayāna.

LAME! I mean, c'mon people! How many cultures have a richer cosmic mythology than Hinduism? They couldn't find anything in the legends of the lunar deity Chandra to furnish a more interesting name than that?
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In the Rushdie novel I'm reading, he's just introduced a character with the nickname of Kachhwa Karnail. This is glossed as "Colonel Turtle/Tortoise". The word has a bewildering number of variant spellings in Hindi; कछुआ kucchuaa is, for what it's worth, the one preferred by Shabdkosh. Urdu and Panjabi equivalents are کچهوا and ਕਛਵਾ/ਕਛੂਆ, respectively.

However, the most common Panjabi form seems to be ਕੱਛੂ kacchhoo, either alone or in the compound ਕੱਛੂ ਕੁੰਮਾ kacchhoo kuMmaa (where ਕੁੰਮਾ kuMmaa appears to be yet another synonym). Another variant is ਕੱਛਪ kacchap, which appears in Hindi as कच्छप, कछप, or कछुप and in Urdu as کچهپ, not to mention variants without the second syllable. The underlying etymon for all these cases appears to be Sanskrit कच्छप kacchapa "marsh inhabitant" from कच्छ "marsh" (source of the toponym Kutch for a region in Gujarat).

So far no Bollywood hits that mention turtles, but I'm still looking!
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I've still got election on the brain, so I thought I'd look at some terms for legislative bodies.

सभा / سبها / ਸਭਾ sabhaa (same in Sanskrit) is a venerable Indo-Aryan word believed to derive from the same PIE etymon *sebho- which yields English sib(ling) and German Sippe. The original meaning is something like "meeting, assembly, council". In modern India, it appears in the names of both the various unicameral state legislatures or विधानसभा / ਵਿਧਾਨ ਸਭਾ vidhaansabhaa and the two houses of the Parliament of India, the लोक सभा / ਲੋਕ ਸਭਾ lok sabhaa or "Popular Assembly" and the राज्य सभा raajya sabhaa / ਰਾਜ ਸਭਾ raaj sabhaa or "State Assembly". (No prizes for guessing which is the upper and which is the lower house.)

مجلس majlis / ਮਜਲਸ majlas is an Arabic loanword (from the root جلس "sit", so literally "session") that is ubiquitous in the names of legislatures and councils from Morocco to the Maldives. The bicameral assembly which governs Pakistan is known as the مجلس شوری majlis-e-shooraa or "Council of Consultation".
muckefuck: (Default)
बस्ती / بستي / ਬਸਤੀ bastee (< San. वसति vasti "dwelling, abiding") "inhabited place, settlement, colony; village, small town; abode"
I expect the Panjabi is a borrowing from Hindi since inherited /v/ is usually preserved, whereas in Hindustani it merges with /b/. In fact, my dictionaries list ਵਸਤੀ vastee as an alternative form, although at least one labels it "dialectal". Moreover, the associated verb is ਵਸਣਾ vasNaa "dwell, inhabit". (Cf. H-U बसना / بسنا basnaa "idem.")
muckefuck: (Default)
लोथ / لوته / ਲੋਥ loth "corpse" (cf. Sanskrit लोष्टं loṣṭa "lump, clod")

Illustrating its use, a passage from the Adi Granth (p. 280).
ਸੰਤ ਕਾ ਦੋਖੀ ਅੰਤਰ ਤੇ ਥੋਥਾ ॥ ਜਿਉ ਸਾਸ ਬਿਨਾ ਮਿਰਤਕ ਕੀ ਲੋਥਾ ॥
Santkā dokhī antar te thothā. Ji­o sās binā mirtak kī lothā.
The slanderer of the Saint is empty inside / without the breath [of life], like the corpse of a dead man.
Colloquially, the Panjabi term also means "bulky person".
muckefuck: (Default)
जर्मन / جرمن / ਜਰਮਨ jarman

I suppose I shouldn't be in the least surprised to find that the Hindi/Urdu/Panjabi for "German" is a borrowing from English, given that the German state only formally came into existence thirteen years into the British Raj. But I rather suspected at least one would have preferred a reflex of Persian آلمانی almānī. It's rather ironic, in fact, to have an English borrowing for "German" when the native word for "English", अँग्रेज़ी / انگريزی / ਅੰਗ੍ਰੇਜ਼ੀ ãgrezī, obviously comes from somewhere else. (Portuguese ultimately? Hobson-Jobson is silent on the subject.)

It's also curious to see the country designated as जर्मनी / جرمنی / ਜਰਮਨੀ jarmanī when I might have expected the final to be taken as a nisba ending and analogically expanded to jarmaniyā.

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